Did the ancient Greeks discover America? | culture & arts, literature

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NEW YORK – Christos A. Djonis is the author of the book Uchronia? Atlantis Revealed which explores how the ancient Greeks were able to discover America long before Christopher Columbus sailed the Blue Ocean. The Cyprus-born Djonis discussed the evidence in an Ancient Origins (AO) article titled Legendary Hyperborea and the Ancient Greeks: Who Really Discovered America?

“In his story of Atlantis, written around 360 BC. “It encompassed (enveloped) this real ocean. “

Djonis asks: “Is it possible that Plato was talking about the American continent and not that of Atlantis, as many automatically assume when they read this story for the first time?”

“Let us not ignore that many scholars and researchers also show that a correct translation of Plato’s text places Atlantis in the Mediterranean and not in the Atlantic, or some other exotic place,” writes Djonis, noting that “at Apart from these assertions, is it conceivable to accept that the ancient Greeks, around the 4th century BC, knew the American continent from across the Atlantic? Interestingly, several clues suggest that this was not maybe not such a far-fetched assumption after all. “

“In 1996, Mark McMenamin, professor of geology at Mount Holyoke College in the United States, discovered and interpreted a series of enigmatic marks on the reverse of a Carthaginian gold coin, minted around 350 BC, like an ancient map of the world. “writes Djonis, adding that” at the center of this world map there is a clear representation of the Mediterranean basin “and” an image to its right is interpreted to represent Asia, while the image to the left is interpreted to represent the American continent.

Professor McMenamin “also found that all known specimens of this type of coin formed the same type of ‘world’ map,” Djonis continued, noting that “it was an interesting find, without a doubt; However, what is most interesting about this find is that this particular Carthaginian coin was minted in the same decade when Plato unveiled the story of Atlantis and revealed that there was a large continent in front of the Pillars of Hercules.

“Piri Reis’ world map, named after its creator, a renowned Turkish admiral and cartographer (1465-1553), drawn in 1513, barely two decades after the” discovery “of America by Christopher Columbus, represents the west coast of Africa, of Europe, as well as the whole of the American continent on the Atlantic side, “writes Djonis, adding that” according to Piri Reis, however, his controversial map was based on several other maps, many of them dated from the 4th century BC.

“Although the famous map does not come close to a satellite image in any way, it still correctly represents the continents on both sides of the Atlantic, albeit with a major flaw,” noted Djonis, stressing that “it shows the horn of the South America turns sharply east, almost at a 90-degree angle, as if South America is “rounding” the Atlantic at the bottom of the map. Of course, some continue to speculate that the horizontal body of this earth could be that of Antarctica, hence the controversy, since Antarctica was not discovered until 300 years later.

“Although the controversy over the Piri Reis map diminishes considerably without Antarctica, the existence of this map still helps to reinforce some of the assumptions made earlier,” writes Djonis, adding that “if really Piri Reis has borrowed from other ancient maps dating from the 4th century BC, then without a doubt this reinforces the suggestion that Plato, in 360 BC, might have had knowledge of the American continent in order to include it in its history.

The “apparent flaw in Piri Reis’ map, which most likely also appeared on the much older originals”, may also explain “why Plato had the false impression that the immense continent in front of the Pillars of Hercules” encompassed ” (wrapped around) the Atlantic Ocean, “noted Djonis,” just like in the northern hemisphere, where North America, as well as Greenland, Iceland and a few other islands seem to encompass the North Atlantic. “

Legendary Hyperborea

“Additional clues, however, suggest not only that the ancient Greeks knew of North America across the Atlantic, but as it seems they also knew of the region around the Arctic Circle – in essence the broken bridge that connects the ‘Northern Europe to North America,’ writes Djonis, adding that ‘they called this land Hyperborea (a Greek word meaning’ Far North ‘”.

“While doubtless skeptics would reject this suggestion, it is interesting that the Greeks believed that Hyperborea was unspoiled territory so far north of Greece the sun never sets,” writes Djonis, noting that “well Of course, the only place full north where the sun shines permanently, at least six months a year, is the region above the arctic circle, a territory obviously difficult to reach, especially during the winter months.

“Coincidentally, the poet Pindar (522 BC,” therefore, keeping in mind the location of this place (somewhere ‘extremely north’), the fact that it is a place where the sun never sets ever, and it’s an area inaccessible on foot or by boat (probably due to a frozen Arctic Ocean), where else can a place like this be?

Djonis asks if Hyperborea could be “the product of a vivid imagination, or is it possible that there is some truth to this story, as in the case of other stories which have been reported to us from ancient Greece?” , which involved real places enveloped in mythical elements?

He cites other places of this kind, notably the Palace of Knossos in Crete associated with the Minotaur, the city of Troy and the epic war recounted by Homer in The Iliad, and Mount Olympus, the “house” of the gods.

Djonis asks if the ancient Greeks could have visited Hyperborea, or perhaps the knowledge of the area was “passed on to them by others, like the Minoans?”

Djonis continued: “If, according to historians, the Minoans of the Bronze Age 4000 years ago often traveled to Scotland and the Orkney Islands to exchange goods, is it inconceivable to suppose that ‘over time (back and forth for a thousand years) they may have finally reached Greenland (the edge of Hyperborea) just a few island stops? And, if these ancient navigators managed to reach Greenland by going from island to island, then is it possible to assume that they could have gone a little further and eventually reached North America, which in essence , is just around the corner? “

Djonis noted that “if not, where did thousands of tonnes of copper go from the Great Lakes region during the Bronze Age? More importantly, how did spices, plants, and insects native only to America find their way to Santorini (a Minoan island) around 1600 BC?

“An excavation in the ancient town of Akrotiri, on the island of Santorini, revealed that a tobacco beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), an insect native to America at the time, was found buried under the ashes volcanic eruption of 1600 BC writes, adding that “if tobacco was not introduced to Europeans until around 1518 AD, as history (nearly 3,000 years later) claims, how does this pest did any stored tobacco get there?

He continued, “Also, how did the Egyptians get tobacco and other plants native to America, like coca leaves, which were often used during mummification? Indeed, in 1992, German studies revealed that a third of all mummies tested carried traces of nicotine on their hair, skin and bones. Additionally, the same tobacco beetle found in Santorini was found inside the mummy of King Ramses II (1213 BC), as well as inside the tomb of King Tutankhamun (1323 BC).

Djonis also asks: “If our first Mediterranean ancestors did not know North America 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, how then did haplogroup X, a Mediterranean gene, end up in North America at this time and as claimed by Plato?

“For those unfamiliar with genetics, every race around the planet is classified by scientists based on their particular DNA haplogroup,” writes Djonis, adding that “for example, all American Indians contain haplogroups A, B, C and D “, and” as haplogroups A, C and D are also found mainly in Asia and B mainly in China and Japan, anthropologists strongly believe that these four haplogroups traveled to North America during an ice age when the continents were once connected by ice. “

“A more recent study, however, of some Native American tribes, particularly those around the Great Lakes, found that in addition to the above haplogroups, they also carried haplogroup X,” Djonis noted, adding that “if Middle Easterners somehow did in America 10,000 years ago, why are only the tribes around the Great Lakes carrying this particular gene? And, most importantly, how the Mediterranean people came to be they went to North America? ”

Djonis continued: “If this was a random transfer, as some scientists argue (see the Solutrean hypothesis), why then no other haplogroup of at least a dozen in Europe at the time was did he follow X, as the four Asian haplogroups on the opposite side of the map eventually succeeded each other via the Bering Strait? Is it possible that Haplogroup X sailed to North America in a confined environment as Plato claimed? Or is it possible, as the majority of anthropologists suggest, that 10,000 years ago Mediterranean peoples traveled to America when the ice still connected the continents of Asia and America to the Bering Strait? “

“A huge problem with the scientific claim, however, is that on the way from the Middle East to America, the easternmost region of the Mediterranean to bear small traces of haplogroup X is that of the Republic of Altai in southern Russia, “noted Djonis, adding that” no trace of haplogroup X (a variation of X or other European haplogroup) no longer exists in the east. of this region “.

He also pointed out that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maps “show that the highest concentrations of Haplogroup X exist on the Atlantic side, around the Great Lakes, and not in Alaska or along the west coast, where, according to anthropologists, Haplogroup X has infiltrated America. “

“And last but not least, we must not ignore that high traces of haplogroup X exist strangely in Scotland, the Orkney Islands, the Faroe Islands and Iceland, essentially all island stopovers from Europe to South America. North, “noted Djonis.

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Kehoe Young

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